'think out loud' about why the behavior occurred, but don't ask the child to explain, "I wonder if you felt hurt when JJ didn't choose you to be their partner."
maintain a consistent schedule
state the session's activity plan explicitly at the start
allow the youngster to develop lists
reassure both vocally and nonverbally: smile, thumbs up, etc.
sit side by side with the youngster
increase structure and supervision during breaks and lunches - Provide an interior retreat during breaks and lunches
do not accuse a child of lying; instead, convey the truth or reality simply and concisely
do not demand that a child apologize; instead, utilize restorative ways and allow the child to rectify the issue where possible
When a Person's Behavior Abruptly Deteriorates
This can occur during special occasions such as Mother's Day, birthdays, religious festivities, and weekends, as well as at regular times.
What the child thinks or feels
a sad anniversary is approaching
a new sibling has been born
I will be contacting my birth family soon
I have already contacted my biological family (expected or unexpected)
before or following weekends
What is the school capable of
be empathetic in your curriculum delivery
allow the child time and space away from the classroom to deal with feelings
Please remember that this is a very basic introduction to Attachment Theory. The Attachment Research Community (ARC) is a network of schools, settings, trainers, and researchers dedicated to discovering best practices in addressing everyone's attachment needs. It provides schools with specialized training and assistance.
An Overview of Trauma And Its Effects on Learning
Many of the youngsters in care have been traumatized. Typical causes include:
the caregiver's drug and/or alcohol addiction. (It's believed this is a problem in two-thirds of all care proceedings)
the death of a caregiver (death, abandonment, or imprisonment)
a stressful situation caused by housing or financial issues.
war or disaster experiences
an illness of the caregiver (physical or mental health issues)
child illness could have resulted in protracted separations from their caregiver owing to hospitalization
neglect or abuse by parents. This is especially devastating because the person who should be providing the child with safety and care is dangerous and terrifying
With the help of loving caregivers, children can overcome trauma. On the other hand, children who have been looked after have frequently suffered several traumas over a lengthy period (chronic). Trauma is associated with various troublesome behaviors in school, including a lack of emotional control, poor organizational and planning abilities, problems with working memory, and difficulty starting new activities or transitioning between activities.
Assisting Children Who Have Been Traumatized
The Australian Childhood Foundation (2006) created a framework for assisting young people who have experienced school-related trauma. The acronym PRACTICE is used in this framework. The school should strive for
provide children with very predictable routines
assist youngsters in developing relationships with peers and adults who are role models
maintain children's calm
increase children's memory and cognitive skills
enhance children's behavior
assist children in shaping their internal emotional reactions
Traumatized children perceive changes in routines and their environment as a potential threat.
create a predictable and familiar setting
establish a consistent routine of activity that traumatized children will recognize as familiar over time
always prepare a traumatized child for what is to come
develop a supportive pattern of one-on-one conversation with traumatized youngsters in which the present and short-term future are explained
be especially mindful during times of transformation.
use timelines that traumatized children may understand daily and weekly
create a visual timetable for younger children that they may carry with them or keep on their desks
Traumatized youngsters frequently struggle to remember and implement rules and punishments. In addition, traumatized children's demanding behavior can elicit emotions from others, exacerbating stress and disengagement. Therefore, understanding the reason and intent of the behavior is essential for responding to traumatized youngsters.
understand the behavior's purpose in how children deal with and manage stress or change at school
use low-stress opportunities to reinforce rules constantly
sanction misbehavior without rejecting the child
track, record, and acknowledge when children follow the rules
after an issue has been resolved, return to the traumatized youngster and discuss it with him/her again in a positive manner to reinforce the rules
Children that have been traumatized are not sensitized (in touch with) how they feel because
they have a limited vocabulary of feelings that they can describe and express
their responses are reflexive (from the primitive limbic area of the brain) rather than thoughtful and planned (controlled by their brain cortex)
they transfer the emotional reaction from a previous traumatic experience into a current situation without being aware of it
assist traumatized youngsters in developing a lexicon for feelings
identify approaches to assist traumatized youngsters in naming and understanding their feelings
develop methods for important school personnel to be aware of and track children's feelings regularly
play feelings bingo with children. This game enables youngsters to recognize and label their emotions. Each pupil is handed a bingo sheet on which they circle their feelings that day
Traumatized youngsters frequently feel alienated from their sensations, memories, and sense of self because
they are accustomed to having their feelings neglected
they spend a lot of time feeling anxious or overwhelmed, which lowers their brain's capacity to interpret events
their recall of experiences is unstable
their relationship experience has been terrible
allow important school personnel to regularly report how youngsters appear to feel
assist traumatized youngsters in receiving validation for their feelings, memories, and thoughts
look for ways to help children see relationships as consistent across time
Trauma disrupts children's remembering capacity. As a result, they feel disconnected from their past and present, making it difficult to think about the future.
provide regular opportunities for children to reflect on what they have done during the day or week
assist children in writing/telling real-life stories that include them
use a variety of techniques to record children's memories and experiences
build stories with children that project them into the future with qualities that they are aware of in the present
Because of their trauma, traumatized children have weak internal working models for developing, maintaining, comprehending, and being in relationships with their peers.
they have frequently not had positive relationships with peers
they may find it difficult to tolerate the sentiments of others and thus do not know how to respond
they frequently engage in unhelpful behavior to engage with peers because they do not know how to engage appropriately
provide opportunities for children to join groups based on shared interests rather than social skills
involve children in cooperative rather than competitive games
role model positive social exchanges with children
support and value relationships as part of normal school activities.
Children who have been traumatized are constantly under stress. They perceive the unfamiliar as dangerous. They have little comprehension and experience with the concept of quiet and no idea how to calm themselves down.
incorporate regular opportunities for relaxing into your daily routine
use music and other comparable activities to assist children in understanding how these might modify their feelings
emphasize physical activities that assist children in relaxing their bodies and minds
be conscious of your stress levels and use ways to keep yourself calm and resourced to prevent unwittingly exacerbating situations with traumatized young people
create and use a checklist to help youngsters find and recall tactics that they know will help them relax
Because traumatized children lack internal working models for relating to adults,
they have experienced experiences with adults who did not understand or address their needs
previous connections with adults felt unpredictable
adults have mistreated them in the past
they are confused about how to exert control or influence over adult behavior or communication
engage in regular and repetitive interactions that communicate continuity no matter what
communicate to children how trust, caring, and support are tied to each other
develop and sustain consistent, engaging techniques across time and across different school settings
Introduction to Loss And Its Consequences
CLA has frequently experienced loss before being cared for due to bad relationships with their caregivers and the terrible circumstances in which they reside. For example, they may have regularly felt abandoned and worried that they would never see their caregiver again. Alternatively, the youngster may have had uneven care and suffered loss and despair when their needs were not addressed.
Even if the child's bond to their birth parent was insecure or disorganized, being put into care marks a further loss for them. Even if their experiences are far from ideal, the youngster loses everything that is known to them. In foster care, instability leads to further loss experiences. As a result, CLA frequently suffers repeated losses.
People experiencing loss or grief, according to Kubler-Ross (1969), go through stages. The stages are as follows:
disbelief and shock
despair and sadness
acceptance and comprehension
Each person will progress through the stages at their own pace and in their own order.
Helping young people cope with loss and sadness
discuss the loss. This allows youngsters to talk about it as well
inquire about how children perceive loss and measure their bodily and emotional reactions
stick to school routines since they bring consistency and security
be patient when listening. Remember that everyone is different and will grieve in their own way and at their own pace
be prepared to talk about the loss a lot. Children should be encouraged to talk about, act out, or express their feelings about the loss, as well as other changes that have occurred in their lives due to the failure, through writing or art
provide crucial information about the loss to youngsters at an appropriate developmental stage. Tell no lies or half-truths
assist youngsters in understanding their loss and intervene to dispel misconceptions regarding the event's cause, ensuring that they do not blame themselves for the circumstance
assist the child in creating memories, such as using scrapbooks to recognize people who have been important to them
provide a model of healthy mourning by being open about times when you have experienced sadness and grief
take care of yourself, so you can assist the children and adolescents in your care - Recognize that it will take time to mourn and that recovery from loss is a process that occurs over months and years
allow for breaks
children who have had many losses will require long-term support. Therefore, make an effort to build multiple support mechanisms.